Educational Reform Facts
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Facts

Education Reform

Women are the majority (56 percent) of students enrolled in both undergraduate and graduate institutions and, as a group, have surpassed men in degree attainment at the associate, bachelor, and master 's levels.

Adolescent women who like math are more confident about their appearance than are all adolescent men, whether or not they like math (and [more] than adolescent women who do not like math). And young women who like math and science worry less about others liking them.

Math and science have the strongest relationship on self-esteem for young women, and as they 'learn' that they are not good at these topics their sense of self-worth and aspirations for themselves deteriorate.

Overall, girls either with or without disabilities had better school results than boys with and without disabilities. They received better grades, were more likely to graduate from high school, and were less likely to get suspended or expelled

Despite better academic performance, girls with disabilities have less positive post school results than boys with disabilities. Fewer women than men with disabilities participate in postsecondary education and training in the years after high school.

A larger percentage of women than men take postsecondary courses at four-year colleges while a smaller percentage of women enroll in job training programs and two-year colleges.

In 1999: 11 percent of countries have achieved gender equality in secondary education enrollment; 51 percent of countries have a lower enrollment ratio for girls than for boys; 38 percent of countries have a lower enrollment ratio for boys than girls

United Nations Development Fund for Women, Progress of the World's Women 2000

Sixty-eight percent of instructors in teacher education programs spend two hours or less per semester on gender equity.

Overall, females continue to do better than males in reading and writing. For example, in 1996, male eleventh graders scored 275 on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), about the same as female eighth graders.

Pregnancy and/or parenting are the leading reason girls give for dropping out of school: 43 percent of female dropouts cite marriage and/or pregnancy as the reason. Specific factors that seem to influence females more than males to drop out include having a large number of siblings, mothers with low levels of formal education, low academic achievement, and low self-esteem.

Girls have increased the kinds of math and science courses they take in high school. For example, in 1998, more girls took algebra II and geometry than in 1990. Taking these courses by the ninth and tenth grades is seen as a major predictor of a student's continuing to college.

As females progress through school and into college and graduate school, despite their frequently higher course grades they score lower on standardized tests than males do and take fewer advanced courses. They also drop out of mathematics, science, and/or technology earlier than males do.

Women are the majority (56 percent) of students enrolled in both undergraduate and graduate institutions and, as a group, have surpassed men in degree attainment at the associate, bachelor, and master's levels.

About 24 percent of the U.S. population 25 years or older has four years or more of education, that figure is 29 percent for white males and 24 percent for white females. It is 14 percent for African American women, 12.5 percent for African American men, 10 percent for Latinas and 11 percent for Latinos. (Data are not available for American Indians.)

U.S. Department of Education, 1998 Digest of Education Statistics

The percentage of women earning first professional degrees has increased dramatically. For example, in dentistry women increased from less than 10 percent in 1970 to 36 percent in 1996; in medicine women increased from less than 10 percent in 1970 to 41 percent in 1996; and in law women increased from less than 10 percent in 1970 to 44 percent in 1996.

Women still lag behind men in earning Ph.D.'s and professional degrees. In 1996, despite the higher number of women receiving bachelor's degrees, women were awarded less than half (15,075) of the 33,195 Ph.D.'s conferred that year.

White women received 12,655 Ph.D.'s (38 percent), compared with only 78 Ph.D.'s (.02 percent) for American Indian/Alaska Native women. Similar disparities exist for Latinas, African American, and Asian American women, who received 1, 3, and 3 percent, respectively, of Ph.D.'s in 1996.

U.S. Department of Education, 1998 Digest of Education Statistics

Women continue to be concentrated in fields that historically have been dominated by women. In 1996 women earned 75 percent of education degrees, the same rate as in 1970. In engineering, women went from less than 1 percent in 1970 to 16 percent in 1996.

Only 16 percent of all women with disabilities are likely to have any college education, compared with 31 percent of nondisabled women and 28 percent of men with disabilities. For women with disabilities who do go on to college, little is known about their specific needs and how colleges and universities can meet them.

In 1995, women constituted only 35 percent of full-time higher education faculty, an increase of only 6 percent since 1987.

In 1996, 46 percent of all Hispanic women age 25 and older had less than a high school diploma. Twenty-seven percent were high school graduates; 13 percent had some college; 9 percent were college graduates; and 5 percent had associate degrees.

Of all Hispanic women age 25 and over who were labor force participants in 1996, 32 percent had less than a high school diploma; 31 percent were high school graduates; 17 percent had some college; 8 percent had an associate's degree; and the remaining 12 percent were college graduates.

In 1996, Hispanic women who had less than a high school diploma participated at a rate of 38 percent; high school graduates, with no college, 62.8 percent; and college graduates, 75.6 percent. Hispanic women with less than a high school diploma had an unemployment rate of 13.4 percent; high school graduates, with no college, 7 percent; and college graduates, 4.2 percent.

The underrepresentation of women in the sciences is not simply a function of a failure to attact women to the field, but also, and perhaps more importantly, a function of that climate. . .

Thirty-four percent of high school aged girls reported being advised by a faculty member not to take senior math.

 

 

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