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CSHP AT-A-GlanceConcept to ActionResourcesLinksNewsletter
Concept to Action Making Health Academic Home Concept to Action

Concept to Action

Using Coordination, Partnerships, and Leadership to Plan and Implement CSHPs

Developing State Infrastructure: Essential Elements

Responding to Public Policy Challenges Facing Health and Education


Related Initiatives

Roles for Everyone

Action Steps

Current State and Local Initiatives



Related Initiatives

CSHPs are one example of a school-community model designed to improve youth outcomes. In this section, we identify related initiatives at the federal, national, and state levels. These programs have goals that complement and resources that can supplement those of CSHPs, though each operates in a unique manner. For example, CDC’s Coordinated School Health Program primarily provides funds to state education and health agencies, while the other initiatives primarily provide funds to local education agencies and school districts. We encourage you to contact representatives from your local school districts and education agencies, as well as your state education and health agencies, to determine if these funds are present in your community, how they are being utilized, and what opportunities for coordination with your CSHP initiative are available.

Coordinated School Health Program
In 1992, to support CSHPs CDC started a new initiative to reduce chronic disease risk factors, including poor eating habits, physical inactivity, and tobacco use. In addition to providing funding to all states for HIV prevention, CDC’s Division of Adolescent and School Health currently supports state education and health agencies in 20 states in implementing CSHPs. When visiting CDC’s Coordinated School Health Program website, you will also come across the Healthy Youth Funding Database (formerly known as the Adolescent and School Health Funding Database) which contains information on federal, foundation, and state-specific funding sources for school health programs.

Safe Schools, Healthy Students Initiative
This initiative is jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Education’s Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The purpose is to fund the implementation and enhancement of comprehensive community-wide strategies for creating safe and drug-free schools and promoting healthy childhood development. Nearly $100 million in awards include up to $3 million for local education agencies (LEAs) in urban areas, up to $2 million for LEAs in suburban areas, and up to $1 million for LEAs in rural areas and tribal school districts. We have provided you with the link to the Safe Schools, Healthy Students Action Center, which is a product of the partnership among the federal funders.

21st Century Community Learning Centers
The focus of this program, authorized under Title X, Part I, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, is to enable schools to stay open longer and provide expanded educational and enrichment opportunities for participating children in a safe, drug-free, and supervised environment. Nearly $206 million in new 21st Century Community Learning Center grants was awarded in June 2001, bringing the total number of 21st Century Community Learning Centers grants awarded to 1,587. These grants support 6,800 centers and serve about 1.2 million children and 400,000 adults. Eligible applicants are rural and inner-city school districts working in partnership with community-based organizations.

Elementary and Secondary Education Act/
Improving America's Schools Act of 1994

Title I: Helping Disadvantaged Children Meet High Standards

This title is designed to enable schools to provide opportunities for children to acquire the knowledge and skills contained in the challenging state content standards and to meet the challenging state performance standards. Strategies to accomplish this objective include providing schoolwide programs or additional services that increase the amount and quality of instructional time, providing staff with substantial opportunities for professional development, offering parents meaningful opportunities to participate in their children’s education, distributing resources to areas and schools where needs are greatest, providing greater decision-making authority and flexibility to schools and teachers, improving accountability—as well as teaching and learning—by using state assessment systems, and coordinating services under this title with one another and with other educational, health, and social service programs.

Title IV: Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities

The purpose of this title is to support programs to meet the seventh National Education Goal by preventing violence in and around schools and by strengthening programs that prevent the illegal use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs; involve parents; and are coordinated with related federal, state, and community efforts and resources. This will be accomplished through the provision of federal assistance to states for grants to or contracts with educational agencies, community-based organizations, other public and private nonprofit agencies, and institutions of higher education. These agencies and institutions should work toward improving the quality of local drug and violence prevention activities, as well as providing effective training and technical assistance services to support those activities.

Title XIII, Part A: Comprehensive Regional Assistance Centers

This program funds 15 grantees that provide comprehensive training and technical assistance services to states, LEAs, schools, Indian tribes, community-based organizations, and other recipients of federal funds under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The purpose of the centers is to help coordinate and integrate the implementation of ESEA and other federal education programs with state and local activities in ways that support federal, state, and local efforts to improve teaching and learning and increase the academic achievement of all children. Appropriations of $28 million were made each fiscal year from 1999�.

State Tobacco Settlements
In November 1998, 46 states and the tobacco industry settled the states’ Medicaid lawsuits for recovery of their tobacco-related health care costs. The industry committed to paying the states approximately $206 billion over the next 25 years. In addition, payments of $5 billion will be made to 14 states to compensate them for potential harm to their tobacco-producing communities. Four states (Mississippi, Texas, Florida, and Minnesota) settled their tobacco lawsuits separately for a total of $40 billion over the next 25 years. The tobacco settlement, known as the Master Settlement Agreement, presented the states with a unique opportunity to reduce the terrible burden exacted by tobacco on America’s families and communities. Many states have decided to apply these funds to CSHPs, while others are currently determining how to make the best use of this money.

Healthy Schools, Healthy Communities Program
Since the 1970s, the Bureau of Primary Health Care has supported and promoted the concept of school-based health centers. Healthy Schools, Healthy Communities (HSHC) was established in 1994 to encourage the development of new, comprehensive, full-time school-based primary care programs that serve high-risk children. The program has established a number of collaborative linkages with other government agencies and private organizations (Advocates for Youth, American Medical Association, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, and Every Child by Two National Immunization Program). These linkages provide the HSHC school-based centers with additional avenues for technical assistance, which enables the school-based centers to strengthen the quality of care that they provide. HSHC funds 33 organizations to establish new school-based health centers, representing 11 rural and 22 urban locations in 23 states and U.S. territories.

Funding for school-based health centers may also derive from MCH block grant (state and local), Title XX, state general funds, Preventive Health & Health Services block grants, tobacco taxes, and tobacco settlement agreements.

More on School-Based Health Care

The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) is dedicated to promoting accessible and high-quality school-based primary health and mental health care for children and youth through interdisciplinary and collaborative efforts. The National Assembly supports the institutionalization of school-based health care nationwide as an essential strategy for improving the lives of children and optimizing their opportunities for success in school and society. NASBHC supports its individual and organizational members by providing community, state, and national advocacy; information and knowledge exchange; networking opportunities; and technical assistance.

The Center for Health and Health Care in Schools (CHHCS) is a nonpartisan policy and program resource center located at The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services. CHHCS builds on a 20-year history of testing strategies to strengthen health care delivery systems for children and adolescents. For the past decade, with support from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, center staff and consultants have worked with institutional leaders, state officials, and clinical providers to maximize outcomes for children through more effective health programming in schools. CHHCS was established to explore ways to strengthen the well-being of children and youth through effective health programs and health care services in schools.

Community Schools

The Coalition for Community Schools works toward improving education and helping students learn and grow while supporting and strengthening their families and communities. Community schools bring together many partners to offer a broad range of supports and opportunities to children, youth, families, and communities – before, during, and after school, seven days a week. The coalition brings together local, state, and national organizations engaged in creating and sustaining community schools, and provides technical assistance to member organizations.



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