REFERENCE: King, C.M. (1993). Multimedia captioning: Synchronized text and audio presentations. In H. Maurer (Ed.), Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Annual, 1993 (pp. 609-614). Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.
DESCRIPTION: Addressing an audience of multimedia developers and leaders in
educational computing, the author describes the general unavailability of captioning on
educational videodiscs and the outlook for accessibility with digital video. She raises a
concern that multimedia will increasingly incorporate audio, creating yet new barriers for
people who must receive all information visually, including persons who are deaf or hard
The author goes on to describe three conditions necessary before systematic inclusion of captioning in multimedia products can occur: (a) provision of a captioning capacity within digital/multimedia environments, (b) tools for creating multimedia captions, and (c) extensive use of captioning capacities and tools. She further explains that progress is being made in each of these areas.
Dr. Cynthia M. King, Gallaudet University, Educational Foundations and Research, 800
Florida Avenue, NE, Washington, D.C. 20002-3695
email@example.com [note: the transposition of "au" & "ua" is correct]
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