The current view, adapted from Teale & Sulzby, 1989, is based on the knowledge that listening, speaking, reading, and writing develop concurrently and interrelatedly. Growth in one area facilitates growth in the others. In this model, speaking has been redefined as communicating to show the relationship for students who are non-speaking and use some form of augementative communication.
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This material was developed by the National Center to Improve Practice (NCIP) in collaboration with the Center for Literacy and Disabilities (CLD) at Duke University. NCIP was funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs from October 1, 1992 - September 30, 1998, Grant #H180N20013. Permission is granted to copy and disseminate this information. If you do so, please cite NCIP. Contents do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by CLD, NCIP, EDC, or the U.S. Government. This site was last updated in September 1998.
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