The Art and Writing Connection: Summary


From late February through the month of March, NCIP sponsored an online workshop entitled, "The Art and Writing Connection." The workshop was facilitated by Caroline Musselwhite and Pati King-DeBaun, national experts in the fields of early childhood, augmentative and alternative communication and emergent literacy. Sixty nine enthusiastic and able participants from the United States, Canada, and Australia contributed their knowledge and perspectives on such stimulating questions as:

As participants will attest, the ideas generated during four weeks of active discussion were vast, varied, and rich. The beauty of online conversations is that participants generate a permanent record that anyone can resurrect, revisit, and reanalyze. If you have several hours to set aside for fascinating professional reading, dive right into the archives and read through the 294 messages!

If your time is limited and you prefer quick access to the kernels of wisdom the group generated, you are in the right place. Information about the products mentioned in the text can be found in the Materials & Resources section at the end of this summary.


Thanks to the following workshop participants/ contributors/authors whose collective experience, knowledge, and wisdom is embodied in this summary:

Linda Benton, David Cartmell, Eileen Daneri, Barbara Dowling, Diane Dyk, Mia Emerson, Rhonda Etter, Suzanne Feit, Jeanne Fielder, Kathy Fox, Gail Gamache, Debby Henning, Jean Hightower, Nancy Hogan, Patti Hutinger, Susan Johnston, Betsy Knafo, Barbara Lee, Merell Liddle, Debby Luetkenhoelter, Lorraine Martin, Cheryl Mendis, Julie Moore, Brenda Murphy, Bonnie Nelson, Helen Ostrander, Sandra Ourth, Bill Peet, Judy Potter, Renee Prochaska, Roger Rachow, Orah Raia, Barbara Smith, Debbie Stewart, Roberta Thornhill, Cindy Tomlins, Cheryl Vitali, Julie White, Chellen Wright

Week One: Books for Learning/Books for Fun

Theory | Developing Extension Activities | Collaboration on Materials Preparation | Making Kits | Creating a Kit Lending Library for Parents | Storing Materials | Creating Computer Storybooks | Resources for Developing Extension Activities |


In the first week of the workshop, Pati and Caroline explained the distinction between "books for learning" and "books for fun." Essentially, books for learning are those books that readily serve as the centerpiece for building a multi-week curriculum based on the storybook's theme. Books for fun are those that enrich the curriculum by building world knowledge. These books can be used to supplement the storybook thematic curriculum.

Pati and Caroline make a strong case for building curriculum around storybooks and for focusing on one storybook over a several week period. Children enjoy hearing their favorite books read over and over again. Because children with disabilities frequently do not have the opportunity to express their preferences, caregivers make the choice, and they are apt to vary the books they choose frequently to avoid becoming bored.

Furthermore, building on storybook themes enables teachers to meaningfully link different disciplines so that students will develop "big" and important concepts. Educational researchers are learning that students are better served when provided opportunities to develop thorough knowledge of a few "big ideas" than superficial knowledge of a broad range of specific ones. If curricular themes are constantly changed, students lose the opportunity to tap the richness of a particular theme over time.

Developing themes through a variety of activities over time has particular benefits for many students with disabilities whose experiential backgrounds may be limited. For students with communication needs, themes enable the entire class to develop a common content vocabulary that they can use to enhance their interactions. Because teaching students with disabilities requires a delicate balance between addressing learning needs and personal care needs, a theme-based curriculum can provide continuity throughout the day.

Whereas storybooks with repetitive lines are valuable for all children, this is particularly the case for children with disabilities. In Caroline's words, "I find that young children not only love, but CRAVE repetition, because it makes them more comfortable and more successful. They begin to 'own' the material." Repetitive lines enable students with disabilities to build a store of familiar vocabularies and concepts within a predictable structure. Repetitive lines also enable students to attend to the story and participate in the reading.

In essence, participants generally agreed that "sticking to your story" was a good idea. In the ensuing conversation a wealth of perspectives, resources, ideas, strategies, and stories tumbled one after another in rapid succession. From the nearly 300 messages, we have distilled the conversation below.

Developing Extension Activities

Participants agreed that the key to keeping students involved in a story over time is the creation of meaningful "extension activities" that involve props, songs, games, art, writing, and/or math. Extension activities enable students to develop skills in various areas, while reinforcing familiar vocabulary and concepts. One of the greatest challenges in developing extension activities is ensuring that they are fully accessible to all children.

For example, one participant related that a colleague who works with typical children extended the story "Mouse Paint" (Dianne DeTommaso) by having children create a large painting using small rubber mice instead of brushes, mimicking the mice in the story. She wanted to know if anyone had seen small battery-operated mice that could be adapted for use with a single switch, making this activity accessible to her students with multiple disabilities. Another participant suggested using a small battery-operated car with a mouse in the driver's seat.

Collaboration on Materials Preparation

The staff developers in the group agreed that developing extension activities is a very labor-intensive process that appears daunting to many teachers from the outset. The process of collaborative material preparation was valued for three reasons. First, it can promote personal buy-in from teachers. One participant reflected that if she can engage classroom staff in the design and development of extension materials, they are more likely to use them.

Second, collaboration saves time. Group brainstorming sessions were suggested as a way to actively engage teachers in creating extension activities. One participant has her teachers read the selected book to themselves and then jot down ideas on cooking, snacks, outdoor play, music, construction, dramatic play, field trips, etc. Then teachers discuss their ideas in a group and each takes responsibility for developing the necessary materials for a particular activity.

Third, when teachers collaborate on preparing extension activities, it motivates them to try new things. If staff can start off with a story that has all the extension materials in advance, they are more likely to "stick" with that story and ultimately reap the benefits of this approach.

Making Kits

Participants shared several strategies for sharing the burden of making kits that contain materials for extension activities. In a workshop on emergent literacy that Caroline conducted, each teacher agreed to make two "kits" for a set of stories that had been selected by the group. Each kit included a copy of the story (prepared in notebook form with page stiffeners to maximize access), dramatic play materials, symbol displays for songs and poems, computer disks with related set-ups, etc. These kits were kept in a central location and classrooms could check them out for two to four weeks at a time. Another participant suggested that when teachers return kits to a central location, they could add a description of the activities they developed using the kit materials, and tips based on their experience.

Creating A Kit Lending Library for Parents

One participant suggested tailoring kits for parents to use at home and housing them in a lending library for parents. In the kits she and her colleagues create for parents, they include a cassette recording of the story for those parents who might have difficulty reading. They also include a small "Yak-Bak," an inexpensive portable recording device available at toy stores. The repeated lines from the story are recorded on the Yak-Bak so that students may activate these during the interaction. In addition, they include appropriate manipulatives such as puppets, toys and other objects that parents can readily employ.

Storing Materials

Participants also shared ideas on how to store kits or story-related materials effectively. One participant suggested that all materials related to a particular book be stored in a Lakeshore bags (Lakeshore) and hung on a PVC rack in a central location. Another one, who currently uses expandable folders, acknowledged the utility of see-through bags for motivating teachers to use the materials. A strategy that Pati describes in her StoryTime books involves placing book pages in protective sheet covers and compiling them in a three-ring notebook with pockets where related symbols can be stored. Small props can be affixed to the appropriate pages with Velcro.

Creating Computer Storybooks

Having teachers work collaboratively to create a computer-based book that relates thematically to the storybook at hand can be an effective strategy for engaging teachers in the approach. One participant stated, "The staff is usually so delighted by the kids' reaction to their work that they offer multiple opportunities for kids to read it."

There was a good deal of discussion about creating customized computer-based books in order to extend and personalize a thematic storybook.

For example, the NCIP Tour of early childhood classrooms describes a process that teacher Barbara Smith used to create a book which featured all the students in the class. This book was used to extend a unit based on Forgetful, a bear who is featured in Pati King-Debaun's StoryTime Tales. Barbara used a Quick Take camera to capture images of each student in the classroom and of Forgetful in his various hiding places. These images were stored on the computer's hard drive and imported into Kid Pix Studio (Broderbund). This enabled Barbara to make a "slide show" or electronic book, accessible to her physically impaired students by a single switch.

To produce a hard copy book, Barbara printed out each page and laminated it on thick cardboard. The pages are bound together with string, notebook style, making it easier for all her students to turn pages independently.

Other tools that were suggested for creating computer-based storybooks included HyperStudio (Roger Wagner Publishing), the slide show feature in ClarisWorks (Claris), IntelliPics (IntelliTools), PowerPoint (Microsoft), and Linkway (IBM). With each of these multimedia tools, separate screens can be created for each page of the book, and teachers can import photographs, clip art, picture symbols, and drawings, as well as speech, music or sound effects that are either recorded or imported from another source.

Adding Pictures:
To add pictures, participants suggested Digital Camera, which stores photos directly on a CD-ROM. Because this camera does not use film per se, teachers can take lots of pictures and import the ones they want into their books. Another participant suggested a less expensive alternative for transferring photos to the computer. A company called Seattle Filmworks will develop 35mm film on disk or CD. Teachers can first develop the film and then select the negatives they want transferred to either CD or disk. These images can then be imported into a drawing program for further modification, or directly imported into the storybook shell. Several sources of prepared images were suggested, including Clip Art Collections 1 & 2 (Expert Software), drawings from IntelliPics (IntelliTools), and Boardmaker (Mayer Johnson) symbols.

Adding Sounds:
To make computer-based storybooks truly multi-sensory, speech, music or sounds effects can be added. Some tools enable users to record their own speech or sounds. The A Zillion Sounds CD-ROM from BeachWare was cited as a rich source of auditory effects.

Ensuring Accessibility:
Once computer storybooks are produced, the challenge is to ensure that they are accessible to all students. For students who are cognitively limited, one participant suggested creating a set of simple overlays for an Intellikeys keyboard that can increase in complexity over time. The first overlay could have two targets, "Listen" and "Go." If students choose "Listen," they get to hear the page read again. If they press "Go," they go to the next page. Eventually, an additional target with "Back" can be added, enabling the student to go back and forth in the book, and so forth.

Another participant, who works with blind preschoolers, suggests creating keyboard overlays with tactile cues for controlling computer storybooks. She relates the impact this approach has had on her students:

"These students are now 'reading' for the first time. One girl who is blind, non-verbal, and with CP from a 'developmental' class, is even signing to herself as she goes along. It is so empowering to see how a simple solution can be sooooo powerful."

Resources for Developing Extension Activities

In the course of the discussion, several resources were identified for developing extension activities. First, Caroline and Pati devote a large section of their book "Emergent Literacy Success" (Creative Communicating) to various extension areas including poetry, music, art, science and math. Other suggested resources were "Art for Me Too" and "I Can Cook Too," published by Mayer Johnson; "Units" by Dianne Tomaso; and the CTExpress newsletter, published by the Center for Technology in Education, which includes computer setups for activities. Pati also includes extension ideas in her StoryTime Tales series, published by Creative Communicating.

Week Two: Art and Writing Connection Summary

Introduction | Selecting Tools | Tools for Stamping | Tools to Enhance Grasping Skills | Tools for Spreading Paint & Glitter | Modeling Art and Writing for Students | Encouraging Teachers to Take Risks |


The discussion this week focused on the important connection between art and writing. Pati and Caroline began by pointing out that some of the earliest forms of writing involved pictures, such as the hieroglyphics of the ancient Egyptians or the petroglyphs of the early Native Americans. They characterize the critical link between art and writing in the following way:

"By encouraging drawing, we are also encouraging children to learn how to use and manipulate the tools of writing. By admiring their works, we are reinforcing the idea that their marks are valuable and have something to say to others."

As with the repeated reading of books discussed in Week One, opportunities to engage in art activities are limited for students with disabilities. Many students with physical disabilities are unable to spontaneously pick up a crayon or marker and experiment by scribbling. The environment must be structured and the tools must be accessible to make such exploratory opportunities available. Because their lives are so full of other demands (educational, therapeutic and otherwise), parents, teachers and other caregivers generally do not see art as a priority, if they think of it at all.

Caroline and Pati make an important and helpful distinction between free-form art and construction art.

"In free-form art, the child has the opportunity to explore different tools and mediums with no parameters (e.g. watercolors, finger-painting). In construction art, the child is given enough structure to permit successful completion of the activity (e.g. affixing yarn, buttons, feathers, etc. to a paper plate to make a mask). Both forms of art have value, and children must have opportunities to experience success in each form."

The authors note that while art activities are not generally considered a priority for children with disabilities in early childhood classrooms, if art opportunities exist, the activities tend to involve construction art. Construction activities ARE important, as Pati points out, because they give the child with severe physical disabilities the opportunity to create images that others can understand. However, the process of free-form art is equally important, even if the products are not as universally interpretable.

Throughout the week-long discussion, a wealth of tools, strategies, approaches and resources were suggested. We have culled the 95 messages posted by participants during the week and pulled out the golden nuggets included below.

Selecting Tools

Several participants pointed out that when teachers select tools that provide access to art for students with disabilities, they should try to find ones that are simple and enjoyable for all children to use. Furthermore, these tools should always be available for all children in the class, not just those with disabilities. This way, the children with disabilities do not have to feel further isolated by using materials that are "special" or different. One participant made the point that all materials she brings into her classroom are the property of the whole class, not individual students. That way, all children feel comfortable using them and typical students can serve as models for using adaptive materials in meaningful and purposeful ways.

It is also important that students with disabilities have opportunities to choose the materials and colors they work with. Children with physical disabilities can express their preferences in a variety of ways. For example, children who are adept at eye gaze can choose among , colors, tools and materials that are mounted on a Plexiglas eye gaze board. For those who can use a single switch effectively, a clock scanner displaying colors or photographs of materials can be used.

One participant described a way to create a scanning device that actually holds small objects. She used the spinning base of another game and attached an inexpensive divided dish to it. She then created an arrow from a coat hanger and attached this to the spinning base. The tools or materials that students could choose from were placed in the different compartments of the dish. Using a single switch, students could stop the arrow at their selection.

Tools for Stamping

Several participants discussed making stamps that children with physical disabilities can grasp and use easily. Teachers can take a Plexiglas base and glue shapes cut out from sponges or from foam board to the base. The Plexiglas bases can be glued to plastic cones that are often discarded from textile mills and can serve as strong handles. Empty gluestick handles can serve as stamp handles and these can be glued to a variety of stamping materials including Plexiglas, sponges and thick cardboard.

Pati suggested cruising the aisles of kitchen gadget stores in order to discover potential art tools. For example, potato mashers make interesting patterns when dipped in paint and stamped on a page.

Tools to Enhance Grasping Skills

There was some discussion of adaptations that help children with physical disabilities grasp and hold art tools more effectively. For example, for students who do not have use of their hands, markers or paint brushes can be attached to head pointers. For those children who do use their hands but have limited grasping skills, pink foam overnight hair rollers were suggested for building up handles to make them easier to grasp. Similarly, dism (a sheet of thick gripping rubber-like material) can be wrapped around the handles of a thick brush or marker so it won't slip. Bingo markers are also easier for children to grasp because they have a one-inch-wide circumference and a sponge tip. The sponge tip allows children to spread color over large areas just by dabbing.

A simple mitt for children's hands can be made from Tempo Loop fabric by cutting out a rectangle and putting a hole in it for the child's thumb. Then, a piece of hard Velcro can be attached to the fabric and also to the marker, paint brush, stamp, etc. This enables the child to hold the implement without worrying about grasp or slippage.

Tools for Spreading Paint and Glitter

Several tools were suggested for spreading paint and other substances. Mini rollers make good paint brushes and spread paint easily. Children who have difficulty grasping a handle can use any number of round items that have been dipped in paint, such as plastic or rubber balls, oranges, or grapes. For children with very limited movement, a switch-activated fan can be used to spread paint. One student can hold the cardboard with paint poured on it near the fan and the other can activate the fan by hitting his or her switch. A fan can also be used to roll straws through paint. Ablenet has a switch-activated fan available, however, one participant felt that it wasn't strong enough to be effective. Another suggested buying a regular fan and using this with Ablenet's AA battery interrupter adapter which can make any battery operated toy switch accessible.

Children can engage in "bubble painting" using a battery operated bubble gun (available at Toys R Us). Teachers can add food coloring to the soapy bubble mix and students can shoot bubbles over paper. When the bubbles pop, they make interesting designs. And of course, children can spread paint non-electronically by blowing through straws (provided they have the respiratory capacity to do so).

The Bumble Ball, which also can be purchased at Toys R Us, was suggested as another vehicle for spreading paint in interesting and artful ways. One participant described the Bumble Ball as "a manic Sputnik--the Russian satellite--with stick-out things all over it." This item runs by battery and when it is turned on, bounces around on its spikes. Again, with the battery interrupter adapter, children with physical disabilities can operate the Bumble Ball with a switch.

For spreading glitter and other powdery or granulated substances, a flour sifter can be used for children with limited physical capacity. The sifter can be placed over the area, and the child (perhaps with hand over hand assistance) can pull the sifter handle. Ground coffee can also be put in a sifter for certain effects. Children can further participate by grinding the coffee in an automatic grinder via a switch and adapter.

Spin art can be fun for all children and is particularly accessible to students with physical disabilities. To enliven this medium, one participant suggested cutting out the spin art square in seasonal shapes and using them for bulletin boards. In her words, "... the project never looks like that same old spin art."

Battery-operated toys with wheels can be used to draw in a variety of ways. First, pens, crayons, markers, etc. can be strategically attached to these with the point down, and children can move these via a switch or possibly a joystick. Mega Blocks with wheels can be used in a similar manner. The drawing implement can be attached with a very large clip (such as a bull or binder clip), either for a clothesline or for papers. These toys can also be used to spread paint by simply running their wheels through paint, or dipping them into paint ahead of time.

Participants also discussed ways students with physical disabilities could create murals. Students in wheelchairs can simply run their wheels through paint and then over a large paper spread on the floor to create "wheely art." Students can also use a variety of tools attached to long PVC pipes or old broom handles to spread paint across large surfaces. Even paint rollers with long handles can be used. One participant suggested cutting up and framing pieces of these large group murals for students to take home and give as gifts.

Modeling Art and Writing for Students

Students with disabilities may be reluctant to select art and writing materials and activities that are unfamiliar to them. One participant suggested having an art station in the classroom where materials are stored in clear containers so that students can see them. Providing students with a choice board that has pictures of the tools and materials sometimes entices them to try something new. Putting new and interesting materials out on the table (like pipe cleaners) can also be a lure.

To familiarize students, teachers can model the use of art and writing materials throughout the day in various routine activities. For example, teachers can visually augment storytelling with art stamps that capture the key elements of the story line. Or teachers can write a story on a projected computer screen while telling it. One participant states, "I stopped trying to get ready and prep stuff ahead of time, such as recipes. Instead I write it during the activity and add symbols or just draw them if I do not have all my symbols ready. The more I write, the more the children will write."

Encouraging Teachers to Take Risks

One staff developer asked for suggestions about how to convince teachers that the process of creating art was as important as the product, and that students with disabilities need open-ended opportunities to be creative without an end-product in mind. Caroline states "...moving from the very structured to more free-form art can be very scary, moving adults out of their comfort zone, because they are losing control. Modeling helps them to see how much fun it is, and how well students respond."

For some teachers who are less comfortable with free-form art, seeing can be believing. When they see examples of art work that students have created in this mode, they are more comfortable with the approach. One participant photographs children's art work and shares the photos with teachers as "food for thought." Another participant suggests displaying free-form art in a way that "honors the artist" and will encourage other teachers to experiment. All children in her classroom have their own permanently mounted frame that their artwork is placed in.

When Pati consults in classrooms she sometimes asks for a space and some children to work with, and then models these kinds of activities, inviting teachers to observe. She also suggests using a video camera to capture these activities so that teachers can observe later, either alone or in a guided group context, when they have more opportunity to focus on the process without classroom interruptions. Caroline adds that when she models an activity or approach for teachers, she tries to make the same materials immediately available to teachers so that they can experiment right away. The moment can be lost if teachers have to wait until the next workday to get access to the materials, or required additional training.

One participant pointed out that teachers are sometimes wary of free-form art activities because they are concerned that parents will not value their children's work if it is not "representational." She suggested sending a note home to parents, explaining that their children would be having a great time experimenting and exploring, and that sometimes "all pumpkins won't look alike--in fact some might not look like any pumpkins you've ever known." This approach can increase the likelihood that parents will value the experimental artwork, and will reduce stress about how the project will be received.

Weeks Three and Four: Making Writing Fit Into Your Busy Schedule

Introduction | Sentence Construction | Functional Writing Activities |


Weeks three and four, which focused on writing, generated a wide-ranging discussion. Some discussion threads were directly related to the topic at hand, while others were more tangential. The comments extended our understanding of ways to ensure that the art-writing continuum is honored and that writing does not drop out of the curriculum for students with disabilities. Below are the "on-topic" kernels of wisdom from the group. Several "off-topic" discussion threads are available in the Week Three archives and also make fascinating reading!!

Participants generally agreed that sentence and story construction lends itself to a broad range of "light tech" methods. While "high-tech" computer-based approaches have their place, they should not undermine the focus on language immersion. The key is engineering the environment so that language and print are available at every turn and all students have simple ways to access it. As one participant reflected,

"It has been more helpful to 'engineer' the environment first with lots of language displays and to slowly bring in something fun and easy like the 'Big Mac' to do a repetitive story line."

Sentence Construction

Providing students who have disabilities ways they can manipulate words and construct sentences is an important step towards enabling them to reconstruct familiar stories and create stories of their own. To facilitate this process, one participant selects sentences that students have generated, either orally or through AAC methods. Each word of the sentence is placed on a post-it note or card, and students reconstruct the sentences by placing the words in their proper order. "Slot-fillers" can also provide opportunities for students to manipulate words. For example, students can be presented with "fill-in-the-blank" sentences for a story and can choose the missing word from an array of several words. Alternatively, students can choose among picture symbols to fill the slots, creating rebus-like sentences.

One teacher has designed a flip book for one of her students with autism. She provides a separate set of cards for nouns, verbs and objects and her student can choose among these to create sentences using the following model: "The (noun) (verb) the (object)." This particular student loves to make "goofy sentences" (e.g. The dog threw the bicycle). The rule is that when she successfully makes three typical sentences, she can make one "goofy" one. This focus on language, structure and meaning surely fosters metalinguistic skills that are helpful for all children.

Participants also discussed computer software programs that facilitate sentence construction. One participant, Bill Peet, described a program he has developed, Dr. Peet's PictureWriter.

"The simplest sentence in the PictureWriter developmental sequences is something like 'I like fast wheelchairs.' The words are chosen from four columns of pictures on a Mac Screen with the touch screen as an input device. (The program can also be used with a mouse or with a single switch.) There is no animation, but after the writer touches one of the pictures in the columns, it is automatically placed in its proper position in the talking picture flash card sentence window at the bottom of the screen. Once down there, the writer can mess around with the word. Clicking on it once makes it flash the picture, say the word, then reprint the word. Clicking twice opens a text-to-speech block, allowing the writer to edit the text. Once the writer is happy with the sentence, it can be printed out with or without the related pictures by clicking a picture-cued print button."

Picture Sentence Key (Mayer-Johnson) is another sentence structuring program that children can access with a mouse, a switch, or a touch screen. Children can create sentences using either Mayer-Johnson picture symbols or words, which they selected from one of three columns representing subject, verb, object. Once the sentence is completed, it can be animated.

Pati emphasized the importance of providing students with a printed copy of their story constructions. The print should be legible and accessible to students so they can reflect on it themselves, take it home, and share it with others.

Functional Writing Activities

Several ideas emerged about ways to incorporate functional writing activities into the already packed school day. One participant described a class letter writing activity that enables her students to communicate with other classrooms in the building. She developed a letter template with Overlay Maker (Mayer Johnson) that her students used to describe their day. Letter topics and comments were updated regularly to keep current with what was happening in the classroom. Students chose picture symbols to fill in the template from IntelliKeys (Intellitools), or through eye gaze. Once the letter was constructed, students could have it read back to them by Write OutLoud (Don Johnston), a word processing program with speech output. When the class was satisfied with the letter, they printed it out for distribution.

Another participant described a strategy that models the power of written communication for a student with cerebral palsy who is not always intelligible.

"This youngster loves to talk and scoot around the school independently. When people do not understand her, of course she wants to clarify in the quickest and most efficient way. She will tell the listener to go ask for her aide. To make her responsible for clarifying the message herself, we have created a system where she takes a special notepad to her aide, tells her what information she would like her to write down, and then takes it to the person she is talking to. This provides a good model for the power of written language for communication, a skill, I am confident that she will someday be able to use independently."

One mother whose child loves to receive mail made a business card for her daughter, including both her street address and her e-mail address. The card also has her daughter's photo on it, and the message "Hello...I'm Morgan." This has greatly increased the amount of mail her daughter receives and provides her with an abundance of authentic reading and writing material.

Materials and Resources Mentioned in Workshop

Stories & Print Materials | Devices & Materials | Software & Hardware Tools |

Stories & Print Materials:

Devices & Materials:

Software & Hardware Tools


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This material was developed by the National Center to Improve Practice (NCIP), located at Education Development Center, Inc. in Newton, Massachusetts.  NCIP was funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs from October 1, 1992 - September 30, 1998, Grant #H180N20013.  Permission is granted to copy and disseminate this information.  If you do so, please cite NCIP.   Contents do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by NCIP, EDC, or the U.S. Government.  This site was last updated in September 1998.

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