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National Academy of Sciences. (1997). Science for all children: A guide to improving elementary science education in your school district. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Shepardson, D.P., & Britsch, S.J. (1997, February).  Children's science journals: Tools for teaching, learning, and assessing. Science and Children, pp 13-47.


General

Anderson, C.W., & Fetters, M.K. (1996). Science education trends and special education. In Pugach, M. & Warger, C., eds. Curriculum trends, special education, and reform: Refocusing the conversation. Williston, VT: Teachers College Press. Book available to order from Teachers College Press http://www.tc.columbia.edu/~tcpress

Dalton, B., Morocco, C.C., Tivnan, T., & Rawson, P. (1994). Effect of format on learning disabled and non-learning disabled students' performance on a hands-on science assessment. International Journal of Education Research, 21(3): 299-316.

Students with learning disabilities often perform poorly on multiple-choice tests that emphasize recall and factual knowledge. This study compared the effect of two alternative assessments--a constructed diagram test and a written questionnaire--on fourth-grade learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (Non-LD) students' learning. As part of a larger investigation of different approaches to hands-on science learning, 172 students (including 33 LD students) in six urban and two suburban classrooms participated in the study. Results indicate that students' assessment outcomes are a function of learner status (LD, low, average and high achieving) and level of domain specific knowledge after instruction. After controlling for domain specific knowledge, students with LD, and low and average achieving students obtained higher scores on the constructed diagram test than on the questionnaire. High achieving students were not sensitive to format differences, performing comparably on the two measures. The facilitative effect of the diagram format may have been due to differences in the primary symbol systems (graphic vs. text) and the openness of the response format (constrained vs. open) of the constructed diagram and questionnaire, respectively.

Dalton, B., Morocco, C.C., Tivnan, T., & Rawson-Mead, P. (1997). Supported inquiry science: Teaching for conceptual change in urban and suburban science classrooms. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(6): 670-684.

Science education professionals generally agree that hands-on, inquiry-based science potentially benefits all students, yet there are few specific guidelines for helping students with learning disabilities (LD) achieve success in general education classrooms. This study compared the effects of two approaches to hands-on science--supported inquiry science (SIS) and activity-based science--in six urban and two suburban fourth-grade general education classrooms. Participants included 172 students, 33 of whom had learning disabilities. The study found that students with and without LD demonstrated greater concept learning in the SIS classrooms, which focused on eliciting and reworking students' misconceptions and co-constructing knowledge under the guidance of a teacher coach.

Dalton, B., Tivnan, T., Riley, M.K., Rawson, P. & Dias, D. (1995). Revealing competence: Fourth-grade students with and without learning disabilities show what they know on paper-and-pencil and hands-on performance assessments. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 10(4): 198-214.

Hoffman, B. (1997). New tools for teaching science: To stimulate, simulate. In Miller, E.Technology in Schools. Cambridge, MA: The Harvard Education Letter.

Koeber, N. (1994a). What problems do children with disabilities face in science? What can teachers and schools do? In What We Know About Science Teaching and Learning. EdTalk.Washington, DC: Council for Education Development and Research. Available to order from AEL http://aelvis.ael.org/pnp/pnporder.htm

The paper emphasizes research-based approaches found to be effective for children with disabilities, and lists specific strategies for addressing different types of disabilities.

Koeber, N. (1994b). What special problems do minority students face in science? What can teachers and schools do? In What We Know About Science Teaching and Learning. EdTalk.Washington, DC: Council for Education Development and Research. Available to order from AEL http://aelvis.ael.org/pnp/pnporder.htm

This excerpt from the Equity section of the report presents conclusions of researchers who have studied effective practices for accomplishing the goals for improving science opportunities for minority students.

Koeber, N. (1994c). What special problems do LEP students face in science? What can teachers and schools do?  In What We Know About Science Teaching and Learning. EdTalk.Washington, DC: Council for Education Development and Research. Available to order from AEL http://aelvis.ael.org/pnp/pnporder.htm

The article highlights the importance of integrating language development with science learning.

Mastropieri, M., & Scruggs, T. (1993). A practical guide for teaching science to students with special needs in inclusive settings. Austin, TX: Pro-ed. Available to order from Pro-ED http://www.proedinc.com

Matthews, M., Gee, D. & Bell, E. (1995). Science learning with a multicultural emphasis. Science and Children, 32(6), 20-23, 54.

The paper suggests that science trade books can play an important role in helping students make personal connections to science content. The authors argue that by integrating such literature into the science curriculum in an appropriate manner, teachers can help students make direct connections with science. Futhermore, to ensure that "all" students can make such a connection, the authors stress the use of trade books with a multicultural emphasis. The article presents strategies as well as a valuable list of books.

National Center to Improve Practice (1998). NCIP video profile: Successful science: Technology and support for students with disabilities. Newton, MA: EDC.

National Research Council. (1997). Introducing the National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academy of Sciences. Available online at http://www.nap/edu/readingroom/books/intronses/

This booklet is an abbreviated version that provides an overview and background of the vision and principles of the "National Science Education Standards." Each of the six types of standards are described: content, teaching, assessment, professional development, program, and system. Designed for a general audience, the booklet clarifies what the "Standards" are and responds to typical questions about them. It helps readers determine how the "Standards" could be useful to them.

National Science Foundation. (1997). Curriculum, instruction and assessment. Foundations: The challenge and promise of K-8 science education reform. Vol. 1. Arlington, VA: NSF.

Raskind, M. (1997/1998). A guide to assistive technology. In National Center for Learning Disabilites,  Their World. New York, NY: NCLD.

Zook, D. (1995). Inner space journeys to life on earth: A standards-based companion for science education. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Zook, D., ed. (1992). The Microcosmos curriculum guide to exploring microbial space. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

General | Week 1 | Week 2 | Week 3 | Week 4 | Web sites

Week 1

Zook, D. Microcosmos Kingdom Quest Activity

Stainback, W. & S., & Stefanich, G. (1996). Learning together in inclusive classrooms: What about curriculum. Teaching Exceptional Children. 28(3): 14-19. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn Company.

General | Week 1 | Week 2 | Week 3 | Week 4 | Web sites

Week 2

Pelletier, P. (1992). The Microdiscovery Board Activity. In  Zook, D., ed., The Microcosmos curriculum guide to exploring microbial space. Dubuque, IA" Kendall/Hunt.

Mastropieri, M., & Scruggs, T. (1996). Current trends in science education. In Pugach, M. & Warger, C., eds. Curriculum trends, special education, and reform: Refocusing the conversation. Williston, VT: Teachers College Press. Book available to order from Teachers College Press http://www.tc.columbia.edu/~tcpress

General | Week 1 | Week 2 | Week 3 | Week 4 | Web sites

Week 3

Educational Testing Service. (1995). Focus: Capturing the power of classroom assessment. Princeton, NJ: ETS.

Hein, G., & Price, S. (1994). Active assessment for active science: A guide for elementary school teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Herman, J.L., Aschbacher, P.R., & Winters, L. (1992). A practical guide to alternative assessment.  Alexandria, VA:  Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Reynolds, E., & Barba, R. (1997). Roles of technology in science instruction. Technology for the teaching and learning of science. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Shulman, L. (1996). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2): 4-14.

Zook, D. (1995). Inner space journeys to life on earth: A standards-based companion for science education. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

General | Week 1 | Week 2 | Week 3 | Week 4 | Web sites

Week 4

Bartels, D.M., & Sandler, J.O., eds. (1997).  Implementing science education reform: Are we making an impact? Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Herman, J.L., Aschbacher, P.R., & Winters, L. (1992). A Practical Guide to Alternative Assessment.   Washington, DC: Assocation for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Lewis, A.C. (1998). Teachers in the driver's seat: Collaborative assessment proves a positive way to reform schools and improve teaching. The Harvard Education Letter, 14(2).

Project ASSIST (All Students in Supported Inquiry-Based Science with Technology) http://www.edc.org/FSC/ASSIST/

General | Week 1 | Week 2 | Week 3 | Week 4 | Web sites

Web Sites

EASI-Equal Access to Software and Information http://www.rit.edu/~easi/

Eisenhower Regional Math/Science Consortium at AEL http://aelvis.ael.org/eisen/publicat.html

Hands-On Elementary Science http://www.carr.lib.md.us/ccps/hose.htm

Mitigative Strategies for Teaching Science to Students with Disabilities http://ww.as.wvu.edu/~scidis

National Science Teachers Associate http://www.nsta.org

NSF Teacher Resources http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/teachlinks.htm

The HUB/Regional Alliance for Mathematics and Science Education http://ra.terc.edu/alliance

Project ASSIST (All Students in Supported Inquiry-Based Science with Technology) http://www.edc.org/FSC/ASSIST/

SciEd: Science and Mathematics Education Resources http://www-hpcc.astro.washington.edu/scied/science.html

TERC http://www.terc.edu

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This material was developed by the National Center to Improve Practice (NCIP), located at Education Development Center, Inc. in Newton, Massachusetts.  NCIP was funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs from October 1, 1992 - September 30, 1998, Grant #H180N20013.  Permission is granted to copy and disseminate this information.  If you do so, please cite NCIP.   Contents do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by NCIP, EDC, or the U.S. Government.  This site was last updated in September 1998.

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