Here is the list of references and resources that I said I would put together
for those interested in how socioeconomics and ethnicity are tied together.
Many of these articles tell the story of the down-trodden person of color and
make it seem that there are no positives. There are no positives because the
values that most of this research is based on are White middle-class family and
societal values. I am not saying that all of these upheld values are bad. What
I am saying is that these values are not necessarily native to certain cultures
and it is the expectation that these different cultures will change to fit the
framework of the greater society.
I found it interesting that I was called a marxist...hmmm. I was brought up in
a cultural tradition that believes you give back what you get because what goes
around comes around. The practice of such a belief is found to be a display of
respect and one's humility in my culture. I do not believe that I should do all
I can to get my piece of the pie, yet I was criticized for not doing so. This
is one example of the type of assumptions that gets people into trouble. Next
time you encounter a response different from your own, ask yourself whose lense
are you wearing and if this lense is the appropriate one to use to respond and
react. Do you need more information before you do so?
Abell, E., Clawson, M., Washington, W. N., Bost, K. K., & Vaughn, B. E. (1996).
Parenting values, attitudes, behaviors, and goals of African American mothers
from low-income population in relation to social and societal contexts. Journal
of Family Issues, 17, 593-613.
Altarriba, J. & Bauer, L. M. (1998). Counseling the Hispanic client: Cuban
Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans. Journal of Counseling and
Development, 76, 389-396.
Benin, M. & Keith, V. M. (1995). The social support of employed African American
and Anglo mothers. Journal of Family Issues, 16, 275-297.
Bradley, C. R. (1998). Child discipline in African American families: Scholars
must question the generalizability of poor research. The Family Journal:
Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 6, 287-288.
Bradley, C. R. (1998). Child rearing in African American families: A study of
the disciplinary practices of African American parents. Journal of Multicultural
Counseling and Development, 26, 273-281.
Bradley, C. R. (1998). Cultural interpretations of child discipline: Voices of
African American scholars. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for
Couples and Families, 6, 272-278.
Brucker, P. S. & Perry, B. J. (1998). American Indians: Presenting concerns and
considerations for family therapists. The American Journal of Family Therapy,
Butterfield, R. A. (1994). Blueprints for Indian education: Improving mainstream
schooling. Rural Education and Small Schools: Charleston, WV. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED372898).
Coltrane, S. (1998). Stability and change in Chicano men's family lives. In
Kimmel, M. S., & Messner, M. A. (Eds.), Men's lives (4th ed., pp. 520-536).
Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon
Dalla, R. L. & Gamble, W. C. (1997). Exploring factors related to parenting
competence among Navajo teenage mothers: Dual techniques of inquiry. Family
Relations, 46, 113-121.
Deloria, E. (1995). Kinship was the all-important matter. In Hirschfelder, A.
(Ed.), Native heritage: Personal accounts by American Indians 1790 to the
present (pp. 9-11). New York: Macmillan.
Garrett, M. T. (1999). Understanding the "Medicine" of Native American
traditional values: An integrative review. Counseling and Values, 43, 84-98.
Garrett, M. W. (1995). Between two worlds: Cultural discontinuity in the dropout
of Native American youth. The School Counselor, 42, 186-195.
Gomel, J. N., Tinsley, B. J., Parke, R. D., & Clark, K. M. (1998). The effects
of economic hardship on family relationships among African American, Latino, and
Gonzalez, G. M. (1997). The emergence of Chicanos in the twenty-first century:
Implications for counseling, research, and policy. Journal of Multicultural
Counseling and Development, 25, 94-106.
Grant, A., & Gillespie, L. (1993). Joining the circle: A practitioners' guide to
responsive education for Native students. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education
and Small Schools: Charleston, WV.
Greif, G. L., Hrabowski, F. A., & Maton, K. I. (1998). African American fathers
of high-achieving sons: Using outstanding members of an at-risk population to
guide intervention. Family in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human
Services, 79, 45-52.
Harvey, K. D., Harjo, L. D., & Welborn, L. (1995). How to teach about American
Indians: A guide for the school library media specialist. Greenwood Press:
Henning-Stout, M. (1996). ¿Que podemos hacer?: Roles for school psychologists
with Mexican and Latino migrant children and families. School Psychology Review,
Herring, R. (1999, March). Advocacy for Native American Indian and Alaska Native
clients and counselees. Counseling Today, 41, 28-29, 37.
Hochschild, A. (1998). The second shift: Employed women are putting in another
day of work at home. In Kimmel, M. S., & Messner, M. A. (Eds.), Men's lives (4th
ed., pp. 515-519). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon
Hunter, A. G. (1997). Counting on grandmothers: Black mothers' and fathers'
reliance on grandmothers for parenting support. Journal of Family Issues, 18,
Hunter, A. G., Pearson, J. L., Ialongo, N. S., & Kellam, S. G. (1998). Parenting
alone to multiple caregivers: Child care and parenting arrangements in Black and
White urban families. Family Relations, 47, 343-353.
Jayakody, R. (1998). Race differences in intergenerational financial assistance.
Journal of Family Issues, 19, 508-533.
Lindermuth, D. C. (1998). Counseling African American families: Implications for
White counselors. Family Therapy, 25, 41-49.
McAdoo, J. L, & McAdoo, J. B. (1998). The African-American father's roles within
the family. In Kimmel, M. S., & Messner, M. A. (Eds.), Men's lives (4th ed., pp.
537-547). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon
Menchaca, V. D., & Ruiz-Escalante, J. A. (1995). Instructional strategies for
migrant students. Charleston, WV: Rural Education and Small Schools. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No. ED388491)
Murry, V. M. & Brody, G. H. (1999). Self-regulation and self-worth of Black
children reared in economically stressed, rural, single mother-headed families.
Journal of Family Issues, 20, 458-484.
Planos, R., Zayas, L. H., & Busch-Rossnagel, N. A. (1997). Mental health factors
and teaching behaviors among low-income Hispanic mothers. Families in Society:
The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 78, 4-12.
Pruchno, R., Patrick, J. H., & Burant, C. J. (1997). African American and White
mothers of adults with chronic disabilities: Caregiving burden and satisfaction.
Family Relations, 46, 335-346.
Quane, J. M. & Rankin, B. H. (1998). Neighborhood poverty, family
characteristics, and commitment to mainstream goals: The case of African
American adolescents in the inner city. Journal of Family Issues, 19, 769-794.
Raley, R. K. (1995). Black-White differences in kin contact and exchange among
never married adults. Journal of Family Issues, 16, 77-103.
Raymond, H. J. (1998). African American scholars and parents cannot blame
current harsh physical punishment of Black males on slavery: A response to
"Cultural interpretations of child discipline: Voices of African American
scholars. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families,
Romo, H. (1993). Mexican immigrants in high schools: Meeting their needs.
Charleston, WV: Rural Education and Small Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction
Service No. ED357905)
Roy, K. (1999). Low-income single fathers in an African American community and
the requirements of welfare reform. Journal of Family Issues, 20, 432-457.
Salem, D. A., Zimmerman, M. A., & Notaro, P. C. (1998). Effects of family
structure, family process, and father involvement on psychosocial outcomes among
African American adolescents. Family Relations, 47, 331-341.
Sanders, J. L. (1999). Advocacy on behalf of African American clients.
Counseling Today, 41, 28-29, 31.
Sue, D. W. & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and
practice. (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons: New York.
Tafoya, T. (1995). The old ways teach us. In Hirschfelder, A. (Ed.), Native
heritage: Personal accounts by American Indians 1790 to the present (pp.
113-115). New York: Macmillan.
Wilson, M. N., Kohn, L. P., Curry-El, J., & Hinton, I. D. (1995). The influence
of family structure characteristics on the child-rearing behaviors of African
American mothers. Journal of Black Psychology, 21, 450-462.
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