Re: Legality of single-sex education

Linda Purrington (
Wed, 25 Feb 1998 20:41:45 -0800

I've attached the references from the CA dept of education on
single-gender academies. Now, does anyone know what legal challenges
are being mounted, and where these single-gender academies are now being
set up, and what funds are being used for them? Linda Purrington


Reference List for Single Gender Academies

The following list of journal articles, reports and books may be useful to
district and county offices of education that are considering whether to
establish single gender academies under the Single Gender Academies Pilot
Program created by AB 3488 (Chapter 204, Statutes of 1996--Education Code
section 58520-58524).

This is not an exhaustive listing of documents on single gender education.
It focuses on research that appears to provide background information on
single gender schools at the secondary level within a public school system
in the United States. It excludes research conducted in other countries and
much of the research on private, predominately Catholic schools.

The majority of the references provided here were located through the
Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database at Databases for
popular magazines, newspaper articles and legal resources may also provide
information of interest. They can be accessed through local reference
libraries and university libraries.


U. S. Government Publications:
Public Education, Issues Involving Single-Gender Schools and Programs.
GAO/HEHS-96-122. A report to the Chairman, Committee on the Budget, House
of Representatives. Washington, D. C.: U. S. General Accounting Office,
Available at
Identifies the major educational and legal issues in single gender
education and cites some examples of recent public single-gender education
programs. Includes sections on problems that single-gender programs might
address, effectiveness of single-gender settings, and legal issues related
to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the equal protection
clauses of the U. S. Constitution and state constitutions.

Single-Sex Schooling: Perspectives from Practice and Research, Vol. 1.
Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of Education, Office of Educational
Research and Improvement, OR-94-3152 (December, 1993).
Provides a selective review of the literature through 1991 on the
effectiveness of single-gender schooling on the elementary, secondary, and
postsecondary levels.

Other References:
Ascher, Carol. "School Programs for African-American Males...and Females,"
Phi Delta Kappan, (June,1992), 777-782.
Describes variations, rationale for common features, controversy aroused
and challenges faced by a single-gender programs for African-American
students in several states. Comments on evaluations that have been

Bailey, Susan McGee. The AAUW Report: How Schools Shortchange Girls.
Wellesley, Mass.: Center for Research on Women at Wellesley College, 1992.
Reports on analysis of more than 1,200 research studies on boys and girls
in public schools.

Koepke, Mary. "A School of Their Own,"Teacher Magazine; Vol. 2, No. 5
(February, 1991), 44-47.
Considers the absence of male students to be a key factor in the high
levels of academic achievement, good behavior, self-confidence, and school
loyalty evident in the current students and alumnae of Philadelphia High
School for Girls.

Lee, Valerie E., and Anthony S. Bryk. "Effects of Single-Sex Secondary
Schools on Student Achievement and Attitudes," Journal of Educational
Psychology, Vol. 78, No. 5 (October, 1986), 381-95.
Compares effects of single-sex and coeducational secondary schooling.
Results indicate that single-sex Catholic schools deliver specific
advantages to their students, especially female students. They may
facilitate adolescent academic development by providing an environment
where social and academic concerns are separated.

McCluskey, Audrey T. "Gender Specificity and Cultural Diversity in
Education," The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 17, No. 4 (1993),
Provides historical and contemporary overviews of the single-sex schooling
debate among African Americans. Summarizes the philosophical basis for
all-male academies and describes transformations in the concept reflecting
community response and legal challenges.

Marsh, Herbert W. "Effects of Attending Single-Sex and Coeducational High
Schools on Achievement, Attitudes, Behaviors, and Sex Differences,"Journal
of Educational Psychology; Vol. 81, No. 1 (March, 1989), 7O-85.
Compares effects of single-sex versus coeducational arrangements for 2,332
Catholic high school students representing 21 single-sex boys', 26
single-sex girls', and 33 coeducational schools. Outcomes during the
sophomore-to-senior period were nearly unaffected by school type. These
findings contradict those of earlier national studies.

Monaco, Nanci M., and Eugene L. Gaier. "Single-Sex versus Coeducational
Environment and Achievement in Adolescent Females,"Adolescence, Vol. 27,
No. 07 (Fall, 1992), 579-94.
Explores differential benefits of single-sex and coeducational schooling on
students' achievement and personal fulfillment.

Riordan, Cornelius. Girls and Boys in School, Together or Separate? New
York: Teachers College Press, 1990.
Reports that students of both genders in single-gender schools do better
academically than their peers in coeducational schools.

Riordan, Cornelius. "Single-Gender Schools: Outcomes for African and
Hispanic Americans," in Research in Sociology of Education and
Socialization, Vol. 18 (1994), 177-205.
Examines academic and personal growth of minority students in single-sex
Catholic schools compared with similar students in coeducational schools.
Concludes that single-sex schools should be viewed as experimental
alternatives to mainstream coeducational schools and should be made
available to students and parents.

Sadker, Myra and David, Failing at Fairness: How America's Schools Cheat
Girls. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, MacMillan Publishing Company,
Explores gender bias in coeducational classrooms and effects on girls'
aspirations and self-esteem.

Tovey, Roberta. "Gender Equity: a Narrowly Gender-Based Mode of learning
May End up Cheating All Students," The Harvard Education Letter,
(July/August,1995), 3-6.

Trickett, Edison J. and others. "The Independent School Experience: Aspects
of the Normative Environments of Single-Sex and Coed Secondary Schools,"
Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 3 (June, 1982) 374-81.
Finds normative environments of single-sex independent schools more
academic, with greater task and competition orientation, than coeducational
independent schools. Compares representative independent schools to each
other and to public schools. Discusses learning involvement, function,
purpose, and student and faculty selection differences.

-- END --

For more information about the Single Gender Academies Pilot Program,
please contact:

Karen Humphrey, Coordinator
Single Gender Academies Pilot Program
Career Development and Workforce Preparation Division
560 J. Street, Suite 290
Sacramento, CA 95814-2322
Phone: 916-322-5048; Fax: 916-327-5868

The Fact Sheet - Single Gender Academies Pilot Program
[ CDE Home ] [TOP]

Web Page Created by: Janet Canning

Last uploaded on Saturday, January 31 1998


Darcy Lees wrote:
> These schools are being set up under the quidance of the California
> State Dept. of Ed and the Governor just significantly increased the
> amount of funds available to school districts to start these schools.
> Check the winter issue of NCSEE News, Notes from the Chair. The Home
> page for the Cal. Dept of Ed is
> or you can email Susan Bennet for copies of her presentation materials
> given at the national dropout prevention conference at
> > ----------
> > From: Linda Purrington[]
> > Reply To:
> > Sent: Tuesday, February 24, 1998 5:21 PM
> > To:
> > Subject: Re: Legality of single-sex education
> >
> >
> > Interesting! Can you tell me where these schools are being set up?
> > Thanks in advance! Linda Purrington, Title IX Advocates
> > <>
> > ______________________________________________________________________
> >
> > Robert Weverka wrote:
> > >
> > > I don't know if they care about the legality of it,
> > > they do it anyway.
> > >
> > > California is setting up single sex public primary and
> > > secondary schools. In doing so they are pairing up schools,
> > > one for each sex and claiming that each has the identical
> > > resources as the matched pair.
> > >
> > > Also,
> > > Douglass College is a single sex state supported school
> > > which ignores the ruling on United States Vs Virginia et al.
> > >
> > > Robert Weverka <>
> >

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