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The world economy is becoming increasingly knowledge-based
and technology-dependent in many ways, making mathematics, science, engineering,
and technology even more critical to the future of American students.
Yet according to the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering
(NACME), more than 50 percent of all students plan to drop advanced math
and science courses, regardless of their career interests and without
knowing the consequences. As women progress through school and into college
and graduate school, they drop out of mathematics, science, and/or technology
earlier than males do.
Math, science, engineering, and technology are particularly
important for women, who historically have been underrepresented in these
fields. To generalize broadly, in the early elementary years girls and
boys do equally well in tests and grades in mathematics, science, and
technology. As females progress through school and into college and graduate
school, however, despite their frequently higher course grades they score
lower on standardized tests and take fewer advanced courses than males
At all levels of education, educators equipped with the
proper knowledge and tools must inspire their students to build a strong
technical foundation so that graduates of the nation's educational system
can ultimately replenish and enhance the technological workforce. To help
you work toward that goal, this packet is designed to provide basic information
about gender equity in relation to science education and contains the
For any additional information or assistance such as recommendations,
resources, technical assistance, or training, call the WEEA Equity Resource
Center's hotline at 1-800-225-3088 or visit our website at www.edc.org/WomensEquity
Gender Equity in Science Fact Sheet
Over the past two decades, female students have begun to close the gender
gap in certain areas of science education. For example, the number and
variety of courses they take in high school have increased. More girls
are taking algebra 1 and geometry today than in 1990. Enrollment in these
courses by the ninth and tenth grades is seen as a major predictor of
whether a student will continue to college. In college too, young women
today are majoring in math and science-related fields at a higher rate
than a decade ago. National data indicate that female students consistently
earn either equivalent or higher grades than their male counterparts in
all points of their academic careers.
Amid this good news, though, obstacles to the increasing participation
of women and girls in math, science, engineering, and technology remain.
A 1998 report by the American Association of University Women (AAUW),
synthesizing the research and reviewing issues of historic concern for
girls, found that the following trends could maintain gender gaps into
the future: demographic changes leading to more pronounced gaps among
girls based on racial, ethnic, economic, and regional differences, even
as the gaps between boys and girls on the whole diminish; the emergence
of twenty-first century industries, such as computer science, biotechnology,
and environmental science, for which girls may be unprepared; teacher
preparation programs giving insufficient focus to gender-equity issues;
and educational reform efforts, such as home schooling and charter schools,
that could affect various groups of students differently.
A large body of research now documents girls' declining interest and
enrollment in math and science classes. Further, the studies identify
the urgent need to focus on increasing girls' continuing enrollment and
achievement in these fields and to support their entrance into and persistence
in careers that demand a scientific and mathematical preparation. Much
of this research has pointed to gender and race inequalities in classrooms
in general, and the gender bias of math and science curricula and instruction
in particular. As Betty Vetter has observed, teacher behavior partly explains
the problem of the lack of interest in mathematics and science among girls.
Iris Weiss found that K-8 teachers, almost all women, tend to suffer from
inadequate science preparation. They fear teaching it, lack confidence
in their ability to do so effectively, and thus provide unfortunate role
models. Thus, improved teaching would help, particularly to the extent
that teachers encourage girls and act as role models and mentors.
There are many pitfalls in presenting a statistical portrait of the current
status of equity in science. Examining the achievement gap between the
genders as if each were a homogeneous group hides other significant differences.
For example, because white girls outnumber those from other racial and
ethnic groups, data not disaggregated by race mask some girls' strengths.
Only recently has such information begun to become available. Examination
of the same data by both race and gender illuminates important differences.
For example, in fourth grade, Hispanic girls score higher than Hispanic
boys in reading and history; by the eighth grade, they score higher in
mathematics and reading; and by the twelfth grade, they score higher than
Hispanic boys in science as well as reading. Similarly, African American
girls demonstrate academic strengths at every assessment point.
- In the early elementary years girls and boys do equally well in tests
and grades in mathematics, science, and technology.
- As female students progress through school and into college and graduate
school, despite their frequently higher course grades they score lower
on standardized tests than males do and take fewer advanced courses,
which means that they drop out of mathematics, science, and/or technology
earlier than males do.
- Girls in high school today take a greater number and variety of math
and science courses, for example, more girls are taking algebra 1 and
geometry today than in 1990. In college too, young women are majoring
in math and science-related fields at a higher rate than a decade ago.
National data indicate that girls consistently earn either equivalent
or higher grades than boys in all points of their academic careers.
- Female students tend to score lower than male students on the National
Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science assessment at ages
nine, thirteen, and seventeen. Although the differences are small (from
1 to 3 percent lower), they are statistically significant and have been
persistent since 1970. The gap is also greatest at age seventeen.
- A gap in the career aspirations of boys and girls in science or engineering
exists as early as eighth grade. While high school seniors of both genders
are equally likely to look to a career in science or mathematics, male
seniors are much more likely than their female counterparts to expect
a career in engineering.
- A 1998 AAUW report synthesizing the research and reviewing issues
of historic concern for girls found several trends that could maintain
gender gaps into the future: demographic changes leading to more pronounced
gaps among girls based on racial, ethnic, economic, and regional differences,
even as the gaps between boys and girls on the whole diminish; the emergence
of twenty-first century industries, such as computer science, bio-technology,
and environmental science, for which girls may be unprepared; and teacher
preparation programs giving insufficient focus to gender-equity issues.
- A greater percentage of female high school graduates take science
courses today. Girls are more likely than their male counterparts to
take both biology and chemistry, and roughly equal proportions of girls
and boys enroll in engineering and geology. Physics, however, remains
a largely male domain; while more girls enroll today than in 1990, the
gender gap here is sizable.
- The proportion of women who received undergraduate degrees in science
and engineering (45 percent in 1993) remains smaller than the proportion
who earned degrees in all other fields (58 percent).
- Within the sciences, the field with the highest share of bachelor's
degrees awarded to women in 1998 was psychology (73 percent). Women
also earned 68 percent of the baccalaureates in sociology and just over
half (52 percent)of the baccalaureates in biological sciences.
- Engineering continues to be one of the least popular fields for women.
In 1994, women earned 16 percent of all baccalaureates in engineering.
The proportion of undergraduate degrees in engineering awarded to white
women was 11.1 percent; Asian/Pacific Islander women accounted for 2
percent; African American women for 1.4 percent; Latinas for 0.7 percent;
and American Indian women for 0.06 percent.
- In most science and engineering fields, women earned a higher proportion
of bachelor's degrees in 1993 than they did in 1983. In three fields,
however-computer science, economics, and sociology-women's share of
bachelor's degrees has decreased since 1983.
- Among first-year students planning science or engineering majors in
1994, women's grades were found to be higher than men's-47 percent of
women and 43 percent of men had average grades of A in high school.
- According to the National Science Foundation (NSF), "the proportion
of males intending to major in natural sciences and engineering was
significantly higher in all racial/ethnic groups than the proportion
of females intending to major in these subjects. For instance, the proportion
of males intending to major in natural sciences/engineering ranged from
28 percent for American Indian and Puerto Rican males to 37 percent
for Asian males. For females, however, the proportion intending to study
natural sciences/engineering was much lower, ranging from 12 percent
for Mexican Americans to 16 percent for Asians."
- Students with disabilities are as likely to choose science and engineering
majors as they are to choose other majors. Students with disabilities
constituted an average of 9 percent of first-year students with planned
majors in science and engineering fields: physical sciences (10 percent),
social sciences (10 percent), and engineering (8 percent). Students
with disabilities earned about 1 percent (329) of doctorates in science
and engineering in 1993.
- Women represent 22 percent of the science and engineering labor force,
and within science and engineering women are more strongly represented
in some fields than in others. More than half of sociologists and psychologists
are women, compared with only 9 percent of physicists and 8 percent
- Women make up 44 percent of academic faculty overall, but only 24
percent of faculty in science and engineering.
- A study prepared by the Commission on Professionals in Science and
Technology found that the glass ceiling for women scientists remains
"firmly in place" in both academia and industry. Betty Vetter, chair
of the Washington-based commission, concludes that in the scientific
workforce, "relative to men with similar credentials and experience
levels, women in all of the sciences earn lower salaries, experience
higher unemployment rates, are more likely to be employed in temporary
positions, and find fewer and slower opportunities to advance, either
in rank or toward management, or to obtain security in the form of tenure."
The "Declaration on Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge," which
was finalized at the World Conference on Science in July 1999, stated:
"The sciences should be at the service of humanity as a whole, and should
contribute to providing everyone with a deeper understanding of nature
and society, a better quality of life and a sustainable and healthy environment
for present and future generations."
A report of the gender panel at the Conference noted some key gender
In many countries fewer girls than boys study scientific and technological
subjects in either secondary or tertiary education.
In many countries, especially in Africa, fewer girls than boys have
access to primary education, and of those children who do have access,
fewer girls than boys learn about science.
- In many countries fewer women than men pursue scientific or technological
careers, and far fewer reach the top professional, managerial, or policy-making
- Technological change, especially that designed to improve the quality
of life in rural areas in developing countries, has focused more on
the tasks that men perform than on those that women perform, both inside
and outside the household. Development programs frequently have not
taken this gender dimension into account. Men and women are repositories
of different components of indigenous knowledge.
The report also noted the need for a major campaign, organized by UNESCO
and UNIFEM, to alert policymakers, educators, and parents in all countries
to the critical importance of gender and science.
And finally, the need for networks of support for women in science, both
nationally and internationally, has been raised at the World Conference
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Science and Equity
Why is it important to
attract girls to science and mathematics?
As we turn the corner to a new century, sophisticated technology
is increasingly significant to our nation's economic, political and social
health. Almost every element of society-fields as diverse as music, sports
and agriculture-are being touched by technology. To prepare for these
jobs, we must present science, engineering and mathematics as unintimidating
to every student, so that they will feel encouraged to gain the skills
and knowledge necessary for technical careers. As part of the global economy,
we must engage the intellectual potential of all our young people. The
ways of doing science and engineering are changing. Teamwork and project
management are transforming the workings of science from a competitive
and hierarchical style to one that's more collaborative. Often considered
a "female" style of working, collaboration generates a more synergistic
effort that results in more ideas and possible solutions. The inclusion
of more women will greatly benefit the fields of science and engineering
as their diverse intellectual and problem-solving skills are integrated
into the workings of a vast array of enterprises. We cannot afford to
overlook so much of our nation's intellectual potential.
Are boys and girls equally capable of doing science?
Research shows that girls and boys have similar mathematics and science
proficiency scores at age nine. However, as girls enter middle school,
a gender gap begins to develop. Girls' grades in math and science begin
to plummet, and girls become progressively less likely to take elective
courses in these subjects. This downward spiral is especially severe for
girls of color, girls with disabilities, girls living in poverty, and
girls who are learning English as a new language. Work done by the WEEA
Equity Resource Center and the New England Comprehensive Assistance Center
has continued to show that female students' success in math and science
has less to do with their innate abilities than with the ways in which
educators create environments, structure classroom interactions, and provide
appropriate learning experiences. Such experiences support equal expectations
of excellence for both girls and boys, while at the same time valuing
the different ways of knowing that each gender brings into the classroom.
WEEA's work has also shown that gender can't really be separated from
race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or ability/disability.
What are the benefits of a career in science?
Despite persistent inequities in pay, science and engineering careers
generally provide a higher income than many of the traditional fields
in which women work. As society embraces more technology, opportunities
for employment will exponentially increase. The enormous range of careers
- from DNA researcher to wildlife biologist to computer scientist - offers
women a challenging scope of work with potential for enormous satisfaction.
The new "teamwork" style of project development creates a work environment
in which women excel. The ever-increasing option of telecommuting enables
women to more fully combine family and a career. Although women still
earn 69 cents on a dollar compared to men. But when a woman has eight
or more college-level math credits, this differential decreases or disappears
Why do girls lose interest in science in middle school?
Girls' decline in interest begins in middle school for two interdependent
reasons. One has to do with the stages of social development of young
girls. As they enter puberty, the girls' sense of self-who they are and
how others see them-becomes developmentally salient. Middle school girls
are concerned about fitting in; what others think of them, especially
their peers, becomes a consuming passion. For many, the prospect of being
seen as smart in math and science, a "nerd," and therefore not attractive
to boys discourages them from excelling academically, especially in areas
that are seen as the boys' domain. The second reason, which underscores
the first, has to do with the expectations of adults and society in general
regarding appropriate activities for girls and boys. In our society, these
gender-based expectations become more pronounced in the middle school
years as issues of identity-both individual and social-come to the fore.
Although societal expectations about gender and other social characteristics
have begun to change, or at least to be questioned, the prevailing view
of gender-appropriate achievement in schools often constitutes a "hidden
curriculum" that supports gender-biased behavior.
What can teachers do to reverse this trend?
As professionals responsible for math and science education in the middle
schools, we can act to reverse this trend. We need to analyze the hidden
curriculum in the classrooms to see whether it impedes girls from having
equitable options. We need to examine whether teachers are unconsciously
tracking girls into traditionally "female" academic, career, and life
choices. We should work together to raise awareness of these issues, create
new norms and expectations, and redefine both the formal and hidden curricula
in classrooms and schools so that they explicitly encourage and support
girls' success in math and science. The intent is not to push girls into
choosing careers in math and science, but rather to give them the necessary
foundation in these subjects so that as they begin to make career choices,
they will not have already closed some doors because of negative stereotypes
or assumptions that "math or science is not for me." The intent is to
develop in girls the skills and critical thinking approaches of math and
science education that are the cornerstone of full, creative, and productive
lives in today's world.
How much would improved teaching affect girls' interest
We must always keep in mind the extent to which improved teaching and
more suitable curricula can counteract the other influences in girls'
lives in middle school. Some influences are very powerful, because they
are inextricably bound up with the girls' back-grounds, including the
schools they attend, the families they are a part of, and what they see
and hear in the surrounding culture. Research indicates that girls resist
science because it isn't "feminine" and consistently underestimate their
ability to achieve good grades in math and science. They also lack self-confidence,
and they have few role models to encourage them to overcome their self-doubt.
How important are role models?
Because of the small numbers of female science teachers and the lack of
women scientists represented in textbooks, exposure to a variety of role
models enables girls to imagine themselves in a career in science. One
approach has been to invite women scientists as guest speakers or teachers
in science classrooms. In one study, conducted in middle and junior high
grades, women scientists were brought in as part of the classes' science
instruction. Within just a two month time period, students developed a
more positive atti-tude toward scientists and specifically women scientists.
Women scientists speaking before student groups, at career fairs and other
events can respond to questions and encourage girls interested in careers
in science. Even programs like "Take Your Daughter To Work Day" offer
girls the chance to see firsthand what it would be like to hold a job
in a scientific field.
Where do I find a mentor?
If you choose to find a mentor, you must take the initiative. Ask a professor
or teacher that you particularly admire. Also, look for mentors beyond
your own institution. Write or call organizations that represent a field
you are interested in, and ask for names of people who would be willing
to be mentors. Most often women in the field are more than willing to
talk with you about your interests in science.
What is the family's role in supporting girls' interest
One of the most important determinants in shaping a girl's self-concept
with respect to science is her family's attitudes toward this subject.
Research has shown that girls tend to respond more than boys do to parental
expectations, while at the same time these expectations are lower for
girls than for boys when it comes to math and science.
What are some ways in which parents can become more involved
in encouraging their daughter's interest in science?
To understand parental involvement in education and its impact on student
achievement, it is important to distinguish among the various kinds of
roles that parents can play in regard to their children's education: (1)
partners, (2) collaborators and problem solvers, (3) audience members,
(4) supporters, and (5) advisers and/or decision makers.
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The WEEA Digest
The WEEA Digest is a free
field-based journal of cutting-edge discussions about educational theory
and research. It addresses a wide variety of educational topics from the
perspective of equity and includes lists of recommended practical resources.
See the WEEA website at www.edc.org/WomensEquity
for a complete collection of issues or call the WEEA Equity Resource Center
at 1-800-225-3088 to order print copies. The issue on science, "Becoming
A Scientist" is included in this packet. Past issues include topics such
as math and computers.
School Girls in Math and Science On-line Course
On-line course provided by the WEEA Equity Resource Center. Contact the
WEEA Equity Resource Center for more information: 800-225-3088.
To order any of the following publications, call our order line at
Encouraging Girls in Math and Science Series
For math and science educators, parents, and community programs. Many
talented and interested girls still need encouragement to pursue math,
science, and engineering. These pamphlets open the doors of opportunity
to these fields for girls by translating current research into practical
suggestions and concrete action steps.
Math, Science, and Your Daughter: What Can Parents Do? (also available
in Spanish) helps parents encour-age their daughters in math and science
and overcome the barriers of sex discrimination by learning about the
roles women play in science. Working Together, Making Changes: Working
in and out of School to Encourage Girls in Math and Science addresses
school staff and special program staff about the importance of working
together to provide the highest level of success for girls. Nothing
Can Stop Us Now: Designing Effective Programs for Girls in Math, Science,
and Engineering talks to schools and community programs about good
program development that interests more girls in math and science. Covering
the why, the what, and some of the how of program evaluation, What
Works and What Doesn't? Ways to Evaluate Programs for Girls in Math, Science,
and Engineering helps schools and program directors use evaluation
effectively.· By Dr. Patricia B. Campbell 1992·#2738·$18.00
Lifting the Barriers: 600 Strategies That Really Work to Increase
Girls' Participation in Science, Mathematics, and Computers
For K-12 teachers.
This book contains hundreds of teacher-friendly and teacher-tested
strategies for successfully involving girls in math, science, and technology.
Based on the experiences of 200 K-12 educators from every state in the
country, the strategies range from the simple to the complex and from
the obvious to the ingenious. · By Jo Sanders (111pp.) 1994·#2809·$13.95
Math and Science for the Coed Classroom
For math and science teachers, administrators, coun-selors, parents,
and community programs.
How do we ensure that all students-girls and boys-are engaged learners
in our math and science classes? This informative pamphlet set from a
national expert in the field of equity in mathematics, science, and engineer-ing
offers practical information that will help in assessing the school and
classroom climate and in creating change. The four pamphlet titles are:
- Teacher Strategies That Work for Girls and Boys.
- Girls Are . . . Boys Are . . . : Myths, Stereotypes, and Gender
- Whose Responsibility Is It? The Role of Administrators and Counselors
- Why Me? Why My Classroom? Equity in Coed Math and Science Classes
By Dr. Patricia B. Campbell and Jennifer N. Storo 1996·#2767·(sampler
set of 4, each pamphlet 8 pp.)·$6.00
Science EQUALS Success
For middle through early secondary school science teachers.
Research has shown that females and people of color are underrepresented
in science-related careers. Science EQUALS Success builds on the "fun"
of science, motivating girls and students of color during middle and secondary
school-a critical period when many lose interest in math and science.
"Science EQUALS Success describes hands-on science activities based on
processes identified by the EQUALS Program for helping women and minorities
succeed in mathematics." -Education Week. Activities are designed to supplement
existing programs, so teachers may pick and choose the activities that
are most appropriate to integrate into their science classes. Each activity
can also stand alone.
More than thirty hands-on, discovery-oriented science activities have
been designed especially for girls and students of color, field-tested
by classroom teachers, and revised based on their experience. The program's
processes have been identified by the nationally recognized EQUALS Program
as particularly successful with or needed by girls and students of color.·
By Dr. C. R. Conwell and C. Equals (118 pp.) 1990·$25.00
Spatial Encounters: Exercises in Spatial Awareness
For K-12 and adults.
Spatial Encounters provides a fun, comprehensive set of exercises to
build the spatial orientation and visualization skills needed in math,
science, and technology. Useful in technical preparation and applied academic
courses, the exercises show ways that the skills might be applied in math,
geography, acoustics, landscape architecture, and telecommunications.
The exercises also can be fun "rainy day" puzzles. Easy directions simplify
classroom and self-directed use. · By Dr. Peggy Blackwell, University
of New Mex-ico (338 pp.) 1982·$40.00
Advancing Standards for Science and Mathematics Education: Views From
the Field (1999)
This publication centers on a variety of areas that influence and
are influenced by the development and implementation of content standards.
Experts in the fields of assessment, equity, technology, educational policy,
public opinion, teacher education, and literacy offer their perspectives.
Edited by Kathy Comfort, American Association for the Advancement of Science,
Washington, DC, (202) 326-6454, http://ehrweb.aaas.org/ehr/forum/
American Women in Science 1950 to the Present : A Biographical Dictionary
From naturalist Diane Ackerman to aerospace engineer Susan Wu, each
of the some 300 biographical entries in this publication includes information
on the female scientist's background, employment history, honors, and
publications. Accompanying essays place the women's achievements in social
and scientific context. (455 pp.) By Martha J. Bailey, ABC-CLIO, Santa
Barbara, CA, (800) 368-6868, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.abc-clio.com
Bringing Native American Perspectives to Mathematics and Science Teaching
The author identifies some of the sources contributing to American
Indian students' lack of success at completing mathematics and science
courses that would prepare them for scientific and technical careers.
(12 pp. ) By Sharon Nelson-Barber and Elise Trumbell Estrin, Theory into
Practice 34, No. 3, Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH, (800) 437-443,
Creating Tomorrow's Scientist: Models of Community Mentoring (1999)
The Association for Women in Science (AWIS) has published a new guide
to establishing and improving mentoring programs for undergraduate and
graduate students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology.
Creating Tomorrow's Scientists is based on the AWIS Mentoring Project,
recipient of the 1997 Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics,
and Engineering Mentoring. This publication provides information on: the
rationale for mentoring; the basic design of the AWIS Mentoring Project;
the program design at each of the 12 mentoring sites in 1995, demonstrating
the diverse applications of the common elements with additional advice
from the program coordinators; participant feedback based on final evaluations
completed by mentors and mentees; recommendations for mentoring program
coordinators/participants based on 7 years of experience; and additional
resources which address the top concerns of women scientists. Association
for Women in Science, Washington, DC, (202) 326-8940, www.awis.org
2000 Directory of Practitioners: Role Models for Young Women (2000)
This directory is a compilation of practitioners located throughout
Oregon and southern Washington state who use science, mathematics, or
technology in their professions. A resource for students, teachers, parents,
and community volunteers to encourage and facilitate the exploration of
science- and math-related careers by young women. It contains detailed
entries alphabetically by practitioner's name, followed by city, occupation,
and ethnicity. (201 pp.) Advocates for Women in Science, Engineering,
and Mathematics Portland, OR: Saturday Academy, (503) 748-1504, www.awsem.org
Equity in the Future Tense: Redefining Relationships Among Teachers,
Students, and Science in Linguistic Minority Classrooms
In order for language minority students to have equal opportunity in studying
science, the authors contend that science practice in schools must change
significantly. Teachers are crucial players in effecting such change.
This paper proposes a new approach to teacher development in science and,
through a case study, examines one teacher's learning experience in science.
By Beth Warren, and Ann S. Rosebery, TERC/Communications, Cambridge, MA,
(617) 547-0430, www.terc.edu
Equity Materials in Mathematics, Science, and Technology: A Resource
The goal of the guide is to make educators aware of the wide variety
of publications that relate to equity in mathematics, science, and technology
education. It provides a representative sample of print and video materials
selected by the Resource Center at Rutgers Consortium of Educational Equity.
All materials listed are available for borrowing from the resource center.
The guide also includes monographs, newsletters, videotapes, films, and
resources for career information, as well as a description of equity materials
at the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education
and ways to access them. Each entry is annotated briefly as to content,
format, and grade level (where applicable). (41 pp.) By Marilyn A. Hulme,
Mid-Atlantic Eisenhower Consortium for Mathematics and Science Education,
Philadelphia, PA, (215) 574-9300, www.rbs.org/ec.nsf
Feminism and Science (1996)
Over the past fifteen years, feminist theory has raised a number of
important questions about the content, practice, and traditional goals
of science. This publication brings together seventeen outstanding articles,
reflections of the diversity and strengths of current feminist thinking
about science. (298 pp.) Edited by Evelyn Fox Keller and Helen E. Longino,
Oxford University Press, New York, NY, (212) 726-6000, www.oup-usa.org
IQ: Women and Girls in Science, Math and Engineering (2000)
This publication considers the experiences of women in the sciences
today. IQ: Women and Science presents an overview of recent debates, funding,
and the opportunities and obstacles faced by girls and women in various
scientific fields. National Council for Research on Women, New York, NY
(212) 785-7335, www.ncrw.org
In Touch with Girls and Science (1995)
In both Spanish and English, this publication includes hands-on activities
designed to spark girls' interest in science and mathematics. It includes
mentoring tips, suggestions for motivating girls, references, and resource
lists. This resource originated in the national Girls and Science Link
Up with the Future project funded by the National Science Foundation.
(182 pp.) Edited by Margaret E. Tunstall and Marsha Lakes Matyas, American
Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC, (202) 326-6454,
Multicultural Women of Science
This resource contains 37 stories, hands on experiments and ready-made
classroom activities. The women featured are chemists and doctors, astronauts
and astronomers who are role models young people can iden-tify with for
the 21st century. (176 pp.) National Women's History Project, Windsor,
CA (707) 838-6000, www.nwhp.org
Science for All Educators: A Guide for Florida's Teacher Educators
This guide offers a framework for the preparation and development
of science teachers and provides a structural path for those who will
implement Science for All Students: The Florida Pre K-12 Science Curriculum
Framework in Florida schools. It was funded by the National Eisenhower
Title II Program, the Florida Science Framework Projects, which have produced
these documents, have involved hundreds of science educators and business
and community stakeholders. (40 pp.) Florida State Department of Education,
Tallahasee, FL (850) 488-8652, www.firn.edu/doe/doehome.htm
Space for All: Careers in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Computer
Science for Students with Disabilities
Encourages students with disabilities to pursue science and engineering
careers. Reveals nationwide NASA installation career opportunities through
profiles of 17 NASA employees, role models for disabled youth. (20 pp.)
American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (202)
State Curriculum Frameworks in Mathematics and Science: How Are They
Changing Across the States? (1995)
This publication includes a segment on equity in the curriculum, an
area identified as a key element in analyzing state frameworks. The main
equity issue in mathematics and science curricula, largely not addressed
in state frameworks, is the substantial differences in the content that
is actually taught to all students and how the curriculum differs by the
race/ethnicity or gender of students. (131 pp.) By Rolf K. Blank and Ellen
M. Pechman, Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC, (202)
Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities (1998)
While scientists and engineers are a more diverse group than they
used to be, progress in opening the doors has not been uniform. This report
examines the high end of education-graduate students and professors-as
well as the rest of the continuum-students in elementary, middle, and
high schools and on into college. (403 pp.) National Science Foundation,
Arlington, VA, (703) 306-1600, www.nsf.gov
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Advocates for Women in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics (AWSEM)
Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology (OGI), 20000 NW
Walker Road, Beaverton, OR 97006; (503) 748-1277, www.awsem.org
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Directorate
for Education and Human Resources, 1200 New York Avenue, NW, Washington,
DC 20005; (202) 326-6670, www.aaas.org
American Association of University Women
1111 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005, (800) 326-AAUW, www.aauw.org
American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES)
1630 30th Street, Suite 301, Boulder, CO 80301-1014; (303) 939-0023. www.aises.org
Association for Women in Science (AWIS)
1200 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 650, Washington, DC 20005; (202) 326-8940.
Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC)
1025 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005-3516; (202) 783-7200.
Current Students/Future Scientists and Engineers Program (CS/FSE)
Clark Science Center, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063; (413) 585-3804.
Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-5200;
(510) 642-1823, http://equals.lhs.berkeley.edu/equals.html
ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education
1929 Kenny Road, Columbus, OH 43210-1079; (614) 292-7784. www.ericse.org
225 East 16th Ave., Suite 475, Denver, CO 80203; (303) 832-6600, www.girlscount.org
30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016-5394; (212) 689-3700, www.girlsinc.org
Girls and Women in Science
Beloit College 700 College St. Beloit, WI 53511, (608)363-2784, www.beloit.edu/~gwsci/gws.html
Mid-Atlantic Eisenhower Consortium for Mathematics and Science Education
Research for Better Schools
444 N. Third Street, 4th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19123; (215) 574-9300.
The Mills College Women's Leadership Institute
Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, CA 94613; (510) 430-2019.
National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, Inc. (NACME)
3 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001-2281; (212) 279-2626. www.nacme.org
The National Network for Minority Women in Science (MWIS) AAAS
Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs, 1200 New York
Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20005; (202) 326-6670. www.aaas.org
National Science Foundation (NSF)
Directorate for Education and Human Resources, 4201 Wilson Boulevard,
Arlington, VA 22230; (703) 306-1600, www.nsf.gov
National Science Teachers Association
1840 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington VA 22201-3000 (703.243.7100), www.nsta.org
Science Education Reform for All (SERA) Project
Third Floor, Kneip Building, 700 Governor's Drive, Pierre, SD 57501; (605)
2067 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02140, (617) 547-0430, www.terc.edu
For more information about additional resources, to consult with some-one
about your interests and concerns, to network with other organizations
and educators both nationally and in your local area, or for any other
educational equity questions you may have, call the WEEA Equity Resource
Center's technical assistance hotline at 800-225-3088.
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in Science Checklist
Strategies for Equitable Teacher-Student Interactions
in a Science Classroom
Teaching strategies are at the heart of what makes the classroom an exciting
place to learn. We know that there are countless strategies that help
to engage students-so many that it would be impossible to list them all.
Based on research by the WEEA Equity Resource Center, here are a few strategies
that have been proven effective in increasing and developing equitable
interactions among students and teachers. This list is from our online
course "Engaging Middle School Girls in Math and Science" and we have
found that they are very effective in a wide range of classrooms.
What Can Parents Do to Encourage Girls
For more information contact: Women's College Coalition, 125 Michigan
Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20017 Phone: 202-234-0443, Fax: 202-234-0445,
Science FAQ Packet © 2000 WEEA Equity Resource Center
Julia Potter, Managing Editor
Ambika Kapur, Research Assistant